Caries is a disease accompanied by the destruction of the hard tissues of the tooth and the formation of cavities in it. More than 95% of people worldwide suffer from caries, but the causes of its occurrence are still not fully understood. At the same time, the treatment of the disease today is very developed and includes the use of various methods and devices.

In this material, estet-portal will tell you what caries and caries of milk teeth are, we will focus on the stages of caries, its diagnosis and treatment methods.

Why does caries occur?

The development of caries is affected by the state of the human immune and digestive systems. With a weakened immune system, the reproduction of bacteria in the oral cavity is activated, under their influence, tooth enamel is intensively destroyed. Children with beriberi are predisposed to the appearance of caries by 25-50% more than their peers who receive vitamins in sufficient quantities. In patients with gastritis or stomach ulcers, the viscosity of saliva increases and the content of mineral salts in it changes, which makes tooth enamel vulnerable to bacteria.

Poor oral hygiene leads to the formation of bacterial plaque, especially on the sides of the teeth and in the recesses of the chewing surfaces. Over time, plaque thickens due to the inclusion of mineral salts in its composition, which leads to the formation of dental plaque. Bacteria in the plaque actively produce lactic acid, which damages the enamel, which is why caries develops.

Nutrition plays a major role in the occurrence of caries. The lack of fluoride, mineral salts, vitamins in the body, as well as the presence of sugar in the diet, which enhances the destructive activity of bacteria, leads to damage to tooth enamel and the development of caries. Acidic foods and drinks also cause damage to the teeth, which disturb the pH of the saliva and contribute to the development of cavities.

Of great importance for the health of the oral cavity is heredity, as well as the state of the dentoalveolar system during the development and eruption of teeth. According to the observations of dentists, the 6th teeth are the first to grow out of permanent teeth, but their enamel in children does not have time to be saturated with fluorine and calcium from saliva, so they primarily suffer from caries.

Recently, experts have put forward a hypothesis that one of the causes of caries can be the bacterium Streptococcus mutans, and this microorganism appears in the oral cavity only after the baby's milk teeth have erupted. There is evidence that this bacterium is transmitted orally from mother to child, and there is a relationship between the number of bacteria in the mouth of a mother and her baby. Among children who had Streptococcus mutans in the oral cavity, by the age of three, 52% suffered from caries, while among children deprived of this pathogen, only 3% had this disease at the same age.

How to treat caries in milk teeth

Treatment of caries in milk teeth depends on the stage of the disease and its manifestations:

  • at the initial stage of caries, when it appears only as spots on the surface of the tooth, therefore, the treatment, as a rule, is reduced to conservative ones, and if it is started in a timely manner, the disease can be completely cured.
  • at the stage of superficial caries, when defects of dental tissues penetrate deeper into the enamel and form carious cavities, it is imperative to fill these cavities, which implies a more serious approach.
  • A similar technique is used in the treatment of medium caries, in which both tooth enamel and internal dental tissues are affected, and in such a situation the dentist tries to place the largest possible filling.
  • if the baby has a deep stage of the disease, then the treatment of caries of milk teeth may involve two stages: first, the doctor will treat the teeth with special overlays, and then carry out a delayed filling.

The choice of treatment method for deep caries depends on the condition of the pulp – if it is not severely affected, then the doctor may choose conservative treatment first, and then fill the tooth. Also, regardless of the stage of the disease, the treatment of caries of milk teeth always begins with the maximum improvement in the general condition of the child. This involves the use of a number of helper methods:

  • Recommended outdoor walks.
  • exposure to ultraviolet rays (winter).
  • prescribing vitamins of groups A, B, C and D.
  • taking sodium fluoride medications.

Diagnosis of caries: stages and danger

  • carious spot – does not give pain, is treated by the restoration of mineral particles at the site of the stain;
  • superficial caries – characterized by short-term pain from thermal and mechanical stimuli;
  • medium caries – a cavity appears in the tooth, pain from irritants is removed by rinsing with warm water;
  • deep caries – pain occurs when touching the tooth, in the absence of treatment, inflammation of the internal cavity of the tooth (pulpitis) may begin.

Caries develops gradually. Initially, a small white pigment spot appears on the tooth enamel, which darkens over time. The enamel begins to actively deteriorate. The cavities that appear on the surface of the tooth get the remnants of food, which serve as a habitat for bacteria. The development of caries is accompanied by bad breath and pain, which is aggravated by the use of cold, hot, sour or sweet foods. In the early stages of caries, pain disappears after rinsing the mouth with warm water, which temporarily eliminates the effects of food and temperature irritants. But if you do not go to the dentist, caries will lead to the destruction of the crown of the tooth and inflammation of its internal cavity (pulpitis), which will greatly complicate treatment and reduce the possibility of saving the tooth. Decayed or extracted teeth impair chewing food,

How to treat caries

Treatment of dental caries consists in the removal of carious areas of the tooth (enamel and dentin), which is achieved using a drill, after which the teeth are immediately filled, i.e. restoration of the anatomical shape of the tooth with the help of filling materials. The approach to the treatment of caries will depend on the depth of damage to the hard tissues of the tooth.

Caries prevention includes:

    reducing sugar intake;
  • use of fluoride toothpastes;
  • Regular thorough oral care;
  • use of chewing gum after each meal;
  • Prophylactic examination at the dentist at least once every six months.
Professional oral care is the basis for the prevention of caries and periodontal disease. One of the most important reasons for the development of these pathologies is dental plaque and the microorganisms that hide in it. Professional teeth cleaning will help get rid of them:

We hope that our material was useful to you. What topics should we cover in the near future? Share your opinion in the comments!

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