Breast cancer today ranks first among oncological pathologies among women. According to the clinic, breast cancer is divided into nodular cancer, diffuse and Paget's disease. In addition to these forms, rare but atypical forms of breast cancer occur.

The growth rate of tumor cells can be different. In some cases, the tumor may not change in size for several months, and sometimes in a few weeks the cancer may infiltrate the entire gland. It depends on the degree of activity of the endocrine system. This fact is explained by the fact that the tumor process is most active in young women after abortions, during pregnancy and after childbirth.

Nodular form of breast tumor

The most common type of breast tumor – nodular breast cancer. Its very first manifestation is the discovery in the mammary gland of a very dense node, which has a "woody density". Such nodes are most often located in the upper outer quadrant of the breast and in the lower inner quadrant. In this case, nodular cancer affects the right and left breasts with the same frequency. In most cases, cancer is found in one breast. The defeat of both mammary glands at once is quite rare.

The focus of cancerous tumor tissue of the breast gradually grows and grows into the surrounding tissues, affecting the milk ducts, layers of connective tissue, lymphatic vessels and capillaries. As a result of such damage, the surrounding tissues die.

Breast cancer metastasizes to other organs, getting there by the hematogenous or lymphogenous route. The speed and intensity of metastasis depends on the degree of activity of the immune system.

Diffuse breast cancer. Features of the flow

Diffuse breast cancer is characterized by rapid progression and a high probability of metastasis to the chest cavity, chest wall and pectoral muscles. Diffuse cancer has several forms: edematous - infiltrative, mastitis-like, erysipelatous and shell-like.

More often diffuse form of breast cancer occurs in young women and has a high degree of malignancy.

Clinical forms of diffuse breast cancer:

  • Edematous - infiltrative form – with this form of cancer, the mammary gland has a changed shape and size, the skin is in the form of an "orange peel" - red, has a folded and bumpy appearance. The presence of a node in the tissue of the gland is not typical, only a small induration can be felt.
  • Erysipelas – characterized by the presence of an infiltrate in the gland, the tumor spreads into the skin. At the same time, small pink foci appear on the skin of the chest, which resemble rashes with erysipelas. The lesions gradually cover the entire gland, infiltrate the subcutaneous tissue, as well as the skin above it. At the same time, the mammary gland is, as it were, “shackled”; tumor and decreases.
  • Mastitis-like variant – the mammary gland thickens, increases in size, the skin over it is hyperemic and hot to the touch. Foci of decay appear, which can be complicated by the addition of a bacterial infection. Such breast cancer aggressively and quickly grows into neighboring tissues.

The tumor process can affect not only the glandular tissue, but also the nipple of the breast. This lesion is called Paget's disease.

Paget's disease. Characteristics of breast nipple cancer

The tumor grows from the epithelium of the large ducts inside the nipple, spreading to the surface and inside the gland. This type of tumor is quite rare.

The first characteristic symptom of Paget's disease – change in the shape and size of the nipple, the nipple becomes thickened. Crusts and excoriations appear on the surface of the nipple. At this stage, the process is often confused with the eczematous process, which leads to delayed diagnosis and neglect of the disease.

Paget's disease is characterized by a slow process. The destruction of the tissue occurs gradually, with the formation of ulcers, then the tumor process passes to the area around the nipples. The neoplasm has a soft texture and latent course, due to which the diagnosis of Paget's disease is difficult. With the progression of the process, the nipple on the chest is retracted.

For timely diagnosis, women over 40 years of age are advised to undergo a mammogram, as well as regularly conduct breast self-examinations.

See also: Round and anatomical breast implants: differences and features

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